Apr 062008
 

sarabanda_d-moll.jpg Am Abend erreichte mich gestern noch ein Anruf: “Ja schaut ihr denn nicht auf ARTE das Geburtstagskonzert für Herbert von Karajan an? Es ist ein wunderbares Konzert, Anne-Sophie Mutter spielt gerade – wunderschön!” Ich frage zurück: “Wer oder was ist wunderschön? Die Musik oder die Frau?” “Beides!”, lautet die Antwort. Ich folge der Aufforderung sofort, schalte ARTE ein. Und es stimmt! Mutter, die Berliner Philharmoniker und Seiji Ozawa haben schon die ersten 20 Takte aus dem Larghetto des Beethovenschen Violinkonzertes gespielt. Die Musik trägt scheinbar alle, strömt dahin. Wirklich? Nach wenigen Takten ändert sich mein Eindruck: Die Kamera ruht ganz vorwiegend auf der Solistin, fängt gelegentlich auch einzelne Musiker ein. So bemerkt das Auge, was mein Ohr ebenfalls hört: Die Solistin arbeitet fortwährend am Klang einzelner Töne, hebt einzelne Noten, die zu Ruhepunkten führen – also vor allem solche auf schwachen Zählzeiten-, gewollt hervor. Sie scheint beweisen zu wollen, dass weder sie noch wir mit dem Beethoven-Konzert schon ganz fertig sind, dass es immer noch Neues, Unbekanntes, Unerhörtes zu entdecken gilt! Die Philharmoniker lassen es zu, Ozawa folgt bereitwillig. Dieses Kräftverhältnis bleibt auch im dritten Satz durchweg erhalten, und zwar selbst dann, wenn die Solovioline eindeutig nur umspielende, dienende Funktion gegenüber dem Hauptmotiv hat. Es ist schade, dass Dirigenten und leider auch die Toningenieure es mittlerweile offenbar aufgegeben haben, das Verhältnis zwischen Orchester und Solist so einzustellen, dass Sinn und Struktur eines solchen symphonisch angelegten Konzerts wirklich fassbar hervortreten. Man will den Weltstar sehen, man will dabeigewesen sein, man hat dafür bezahlt. Deutlich wurde das beispielsweise in der d-moll-Episode des dritten Satzes in jenen Takten, wo eindeutig den Holzbläsern die dominierende Rolle anvertraut ist. Mutter führte auch hier, das hörte ich auf Schritt und Tritt heraus.

Bei den wirklich großen, mir im Gedächtnis haftenden Aufführungen dieses Konzerts hatte ich hingegen nie den Eindruck, dass nur der Solist führt – sondern dass der Solist sich führen lässt … sich tragen lässt auf einem rückhaltlosen Vertrauen, Vertrauen in die Komposition, in den Dirigenten und in das Orchester. Es bedarf dann keiner weiteren Zutaten und hingestreuter Perlen.

Aufschlussreich war das Pauseninterview mit Anne-Sopie Mutter über Karajan, über Beethoven, über Bach: “Karajan führte uns so mitreißend, dass wir am Schluss auch wirklich für ihn spielen wollten.” Eine respektlose Zwischenfrage fiel mir ein: Und wer führte heute abend? “Dieses Konzert ist der Mount Everest, an dem jeder Geiger sich immer wieder erproben muss, und bei dem Kunstverständnis und Virtuosität gleichermaßen gezeigt werden müssen”, so sprach Anne-Sophie Mutter sinngemäß in ihrem wunderbar klaren, schönen, persönlich eingefärbten Deutsch. Aber genau in diesen Aussagen treten auch die Grenzen einer solchen Werkauffassung hervor. Denn dieses Werk kann nicht als bloße einsame Auseinandersetzung der “Gipfelbezwingerin” gelingen. Dann wird Beethovens opus 61 lange, langatmig, und je länger die drei Sätze dauern, desto stärker wird der Solist sich herausgefordert fühlen, selbständig Glanzlichter an verschiedenen Stellen aufzusetzen, es allen zu beweisen, was er oder sie “drauf hat”. Nein, nur in beharrlicher gemeinsamer Bemühung – vorzugsweise in den Proben – können Dirigent, Orchester und Solist so zusammenfinden, dass daraus der große gemeinsame Atem wird. Karajan, den ich leider nur von Tonträgern kenne, schaffte dieses Wunder immer wieder. Die Beethoven-Aufführung gestern blieb mir zumindest diesen großen, erhebenden Gesamteindruck schuldig. Dabei muss durchaus hervorgehoben werden, dass Mutter die Kreisler-Kadenz des dritten Satzes atemberaubend brillant und mit halsbrecherischem Accelerando spielte, mit einem Spiccato, dass mir schier das Herz stehen blieb – großartig, begeisternd, eine herausragenden Geigerin!

Auch die Zugabe, die Sarabanda aus Bachs d-moll-Partita, entsprach genau diesem Ideal eines Glanzlicher aufsetzenden, um Schönheit der einzelnen Phrase, des Tons bemühten Geigenspiels. Was weniger hervortrat, war die verdeckte Polyphonie, das quasi-ensemblehafte Gepräge dieses gemessen-melancholisch schreitenden Satzes. Beispielsweise in Takt 15: hier hat Bach zweistimmig mit einem einfachen Motiv aus zwei Sechzehnteln komponiert, sinnvollerweise getrennt in der ersten Lage auf A- und E-Saite zu spielen. Mutter entschied sich anders: Sie legte die Phrase ganz auf das unbetonte Tonika-g” vor dem Taktstrich an, hob dieses sogar noch durch Lagenwechsel auf der A-Saite in die vierte Lage und Vibrato hervor – fürwahr ein hübscher Effekt, den auch andere große Geiger verwenden. Aber sind derartige Effekte wirklich das Beste, was sich aus dieser barocken Komposition herausholen lässt? Ein solches Fragezeichen bleibt. Karajan selbst, wenn er denn zugehört hätte – hätte er kein solches Fragezeichen gesetzt?

Bild: Johann Sebastian Bach: Drei Sonaten und drei Partiten für Violine solo. Hg. von Günter Haußwald, Bärenreiter Verlag, Kassel 1959. S. 30: Sarabanda aus der Partita d-moll

 Posted by at 21:18

  57 Responses to “Anne-Sophie Mutter: Viele Glanzlichter und ein kleines Fragezeichen”

  1. Um es vorweg zu sagen, ich bewundere die Künstlerin. Aber wie viele andere Virtuosen auch will sich Frau Mutter noch mehr in den Vordergrund drängen als sie ohnehin schon dort steht.
    Aber Solistin in einem Orchester zu sein ist nicht das gleiche wie als Frontman in einer Rockband zu agieren.
    Und weil, wie Du schon sagtest, auch die Dirigenten und Toningenieure den Solisten über Gebühr betonen, kaufe ich häufig Aufnahmen mit weniger berühmten Solisten. Dort bekomme ich dann auch das “gesamte” Werk zu hören.

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